Islam And Science
“We (God) shall show them Our signs in and within the World until it becomes clear to them that this is the Truth.” The Quran, the book of Islam, is the final book of God’s revelation to mankind. And the last book in the line of revelations provided to the Prophets. The Quran (revealed over 1400 years ago) is not strictly a science text. It includes scientific facts that have only recently been discovered through technology and scientific information advancement. Islam and science promote meditation and scientific research. Knowing the essence of creation helps people to learn more about their Creator and the depth of His strength and knowledge.
During a time when Science was primitive, the Quran was revealed; there were no telescopes, microscopes or anything like the technology of today. Men claimed the sun orbited the earth, and pillars at the corners of a flat world kept up the sky. The Quran was unveiled against this backdrop, containing much scientific information on subjects ranging from astronomy to biology, geology, and zoology.
Medieval Islamic Medicine
Health treatment was free to all during the Golden Age of Islamic Civilisation. Cutting-edge procedures such as cataract surgery, routine vaccines, internal sewing, bone setting, and medical education in hospital teaching were part of the daily practice. As well as knowledge of the importance of diet and exercise in preserving life and health.
Islamic medicine in the history of medicine is the science founded in the Islamic Golden Age and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.
Including the main traditions of Hippocrates, Galen, and Dioscorides, retained, systematized and established the scientific knowledge of classical antiquity. Islamic medicine was the most developed in the world during the post-classical period, combining ideas of ancient Greek, Roman, and Persian medicine as well as the ancient Indian practice of Ayurveda while making numerous advances and inventions.
Medicine was a core part of Islamic culture in the Medieval period. In response to the circumstances of time and place/location, Islamic physicists and scholars developed a thorough and complex medical literature exploring, analyzing and synthesizing the theory and practice of medicine Islamic medicine was originally based on tradition, mainly the theoretical and practical knowledge developed in Arabia and known at the time of Muhammad.
Islamic Medicine- Islam and science
Islamic medicine underwent amazing developments that later influenced European medical education and practice. Arab scholars synthesized and further elaborated the knowledge they had gathered from ancient manuscripts, adding their own experience. The medical literature lists several Arab leaders. Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya ar-Razi (Rhazes), who distinguished smallpox from measles, identified the recurrent nerve’s laryngeal branch.
He also introduced mercurial ointments and hot moist compresses in surgery, investigated psychosomatic reactions, and wrote the famous Al-Hawi, a 30 volume medical encyclopedia; Az-Zahrawi (Abulcasis), regarded as the father of surgery, who performed a tracheotomy. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) who described anthrax and tuberculosis as separating meningitis from other neurological diseases, introduced urethral drug instillation, stressed the importance of hygiene and dietetics, and the holistic approach to the patient [his work al-Qanun fil Tibb (The Canon of Medicine), represented the absolute authority in medicine for 500 years. Ibn-Zuhr (Avenzoar) WHO described pericarditis, mediastinitis and pharynx paralysis and highlighted the importance of drugs for the body and soul, and Ibn-Nafis who researched and described pulmonary circulation.
Islamic Medicine Books- Islam and science
IBN SINA’S ‘THE CANON OF MEDICINE’ BOOK 11TH CENTURY
Ibn Sina dedicated a portion of the third volume of this popular ‘Canon’ to the ‘Drawbacks of excessive Obesity’ listing obesity as a disease and recommending that it be overcome with hard exercise and lean food.
AL-RAZI’S ‘DIET THERAPY’ BOOK 10TH CENTURY
Mohamed ibn Zakaria Al-Razi (Rhazes, 841–926) objectively analyzed all existing knowledge of obesity at the time in his book Al-Hawi Fit-Tibb (An Encyclopedia of Medicine). He addressed the views of scholars who preceded him, especially in relation to the management of excessive obesity. Al-Razi reported his conversation using clinical case reports from the patients he successfully diagnosed with extreme obesity. Explaining in detail the therapies he used including improvements in diet, medications, workouts, acupuncture, hydrotherapy, and lifestyle.
IBN HUBAL’S ‘SELECTIONS IN MEDICINE’ BOOK 12TH CENTURY
Ibn Hubal Al-Baghdadi (1121 – 1213) was an Arab physicist and scientist known mainly for his medical compendium entitled Kitab al-Mukhatarat fi al-Tibb (The Book of Medicine Selections), published in Mosul in Iraq in 1165.
13TH CENTURY ‘ART OF MEDICINE’
Ibn al-Nafis was a physician from the 13th century, ‘Alâ’ al-Dîn Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Abi al-Hazm al-Qarshi, born in Al-Qarsh near Damascus. He studied medicine under the supervision of the distinguished professor Muhadhab al-Din al-Dakhwar. At the medical school of Al-Nuri hospital in Damascus. He has published a variety of works including his most acclaimed Kitab al-Shamil fi ‘l-Sina’a al-Tibbiyya (Comprehensive Book in Medicine). He reported on the correlation between excessive obesity and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular injuries. Also, respiratory and endocrine disorders in one of his other works Al Mujiz Fit-Tibb (The Succinct Book of Medicine)
SAMARQANDI’S ‘FOOD AND DRINK FOR HEALTHY PEOPLE’ BOOK 13TH CENTURY
Najib ad-Din Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Umar Samarqandi was a Persian doctor from Samarqandi, in the 13th century. He was a prolific medical writer and proponent of medical theories, but few details of his life are available. His most celebrated book was “The Handbook of Signs and Symptoms,” a detailed medical and pathology manual.
Muslim academics have established a variety of scientific views within the Islamic context. When it comes to science, the Quran and Islam allow for a lot of interpretation. Medieval Muslim culture scientists (e.g., Ibn al-Haytham) contributed to the latest scientific findings. Muslim mathematicians and astronomers continued the progress of almost all fields of mathematics from the eighth to the fifteenth centuries. At the same time, questions about the lack of scientific literacy in parts of the modern Muslim world exist. While there is still a lot of room for further research. It is safe to say that Islamic Science provides authentic facts and figures that fit in the modern world.